Current Affairs 01-05 Jan 2024
Daily Current Capsules
01 to 05 January 2024
- ISRO’s PSLV-C58 has launched XPOSAT Satellite into an Eastward low inclination orbit on January 01, 2024
Know! about XPoSat (X-ray Polarimeter Satellite)
- With the launch of dedicated polarimetry mission, India is the second country, next to the US, to try find characteristics of celestial bodies from knowing the direction of the vibration of the incoming waves.
- It will help understand emission mechanism from various astronomical sources such as blackhole, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, pulsar wind nebulae etc. that originates from complex physical processes.
- A black hole is a region of space where matter has collapsed in on itself. The gravitational pull is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape.
- Black holes emerge from the explosive demise of certain large stars, and some are truly huge – their size billions of times the mass of our Sun.
- XPoSat comprises two payloads, including Indian X-ray Polarimeter (POLIX) and X-ray Spectroscopy and Timing (XSPECT). They have been built by Raman Research Institute and UR Rao Satellite Centre, both located in Bengaluru.
- The spacecraft is designated for observation from low earth orbit (~ 650 km, low inclination of ~ 6 degree).
- It has an estimated mission life of about five years during which XPoSat will observe sources that emit polarised X-rays.
- The observations will be done when the magnetars or neutron stars (they are highly magnetic and display a wide array of X-ray activity) are in transit through the Earth’s shadow, for instance, during the eclipse period.
- After injection of XPOSAT, the PS4 stage will be re-started twice to reduce the orbit into 350 km circular orbit to maintain in 3-axis stabilized mode for Orbital Platform (OP) experiments.
- The PSLV Orbital Experimental Module-3 (POEM-3) experiment will be executed meeting the objective of 10 identified payloads, supplied by ISRO and IN-SPACe.
- Lowering POEM-3 to 350 kilometers is intended to mitigate debris by reducing the orbital lifetime of the upper stage.
- ISRO has decided to bring the fourth stage to a lower orbit so that the life of the stage in the orbit is much less, and doesn’t create debris in that process
Know! about POEM
- PSLV Orbital Experiment Platform (POEM) also known as PSLV Stage 4 Orbital Platform (PS4-OP) is an orbital micro-gravity test bed based on spent fourth stage of PSLV
- POEM or PS4-OP was conceived by VSSC/ISRO to help Indian academia and start-ups by providing a low-cost platform with essential subsystems to support their payloads hence lowering the barriers of reaching orbit
EXERCISE DESERT CYCLONE
- The UAE Land Forces contingent comprising 45 personnel arrived in India to participate in the 1st edition of the India – UAE Joint Military Exercise ‘DESERT CYCLONE’.
- The Exercise is scheduled to be conducted in Mahajan, Rajasthan from 2nd to 15th January 2024.
- The UAE contingent is being represented by troops from the Zayed First Brigade.
- The Indian Army contingent comprising 45 personnel is being represented mainly by a Battalion from the Mechanised Infantry Regiment.
- The Exercise aims to enhance interoperability in Sub-conventional Operations including Fighting in Built-Up Areas (FIBUA) in desert/semi-desert terrain under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter on Peace Keeping Operations.
- The Exercise will enhance cooperation and interoperability between both the sides during Peace Keeping Operations.
SMART 2.0 launched for Ayurveda Teaching Professionals
- The Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) along with National Commission for Indian System of Medicine (NCISM) has launched ‘SMART 2.0’ (Scope for Mainstreaming Ayurveda Research among Teaching professionals) program to promote robust clinical studies in priority areas of Ayurveda with Ayurveda academic institutions/hospitals across the country through mutual collaboration.
- CCRAS, the study aims at safety, tolerability, and adherence to Ayurveda formulations in the priority research areas of Bal Kasa, Malnutrition, Insufficient lactation, Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, Osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, and Diabetes Mellitus(DM) II.
- CCRAS is an apex organization for the formulation, co-ordination, development and promotion of research on scientific lines in Ayurveda, functioning under the Ministry of Ayush.
- The objective of ‘SMART 2.0’ is to generate a tangible evidence to demonstrate efficacy and safety of Ayurveda interventions using interdisciplinary research methods and translating it into public health care.
- Under the ‘SMART 1.0’, around 10 diseases were covered with the active participation of teaching professionals from 38 colleges.
PM inaugurates Kochi-Lakshadweep Islands Submarine Optical Fibre Connection
- Prime Minister, in Kavaratti, Lakshadweep, inaugurated Kochi-Lakshadweep islands submarine optical fiber connection (KLI-SOFC) project among various developmental projects worth more than Rs 1,150 crore covering a wide range of sectors including technology, energy, water resources, healthcare and education.
- The KLI-SOFC project will lead to an increase in internet speed unlocking new possibilities & opportunities.
- The dedicated submarine OFC will ensure a paradigm shift in communication infrastructure in the Lakshadweep islands, enabling faster and more reliable internet services, telemedicine, e-governance, educational initiatives, digital banking, digital currency usage, digital literacy etc.
Background-Kochi-Lakshadweep Submarine OFC (KLI) Project
- The Department of Telecommunications (DOT) conceptualized the Kochi-Lakshadweep Submarine OFC Project (KLI project).
- In the Kochi-Lakshadweep Islands Submarine Cable (KLI) project submarine cable connectivity from Mainland (Kochi) to eleven Lakshadweep Islands namely, Kavaratti, Agatti, Amini, Kadmat, Chetlet, Kalpeni, Minicoy, Androth, Kiltan, Bangaram and Bitra has been extended.
- The project is funded by Universal Services Obligation Fund (USOF), Department of Telecommunication.
- Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was the Project Executing Agency and the work was awarded to M/s NEC Corporation India Pvt Ltd through Global Open Tendering process.
Highlights of the KLI Project
- Total link distance: 1,868 kilometres.
- Total cost of project : Rs 1072 crore plus taxes.
Benefit of the KLI Project
- The project will play a significant role in achieving the objective of ‘Digital India’ and ‘National Broadband Mission’ and for rolling out of various e-governance projects of Government of India in Lakshadweep Islands.
- E-Governance, Tourism, Education, Health, Commerce and Industries will get a boost. It will also help in further improvement in standards of living of the people in Island and will accelerate overall social and economic development in these areas.
- Population of Lakshadweep Islands will be provided high speed wireline broadband connectivity.
- High speed broadband will be provided through FTTH and 5G/4G Mobile network.
- The bandwidth created under this project will be available to all Telecom Service Providers (TSPs) to strengthen their telecom services in the Lakshadweep Islands..
- Minister of Housing & Urban Affairs, inaugurated the ‘URBAN SQUARE’, an exhibition offering visitors an immersive urban experience with a diverse spectrum of products, including handlooms, upcycled décor, pottery, packaged food, handicrafts and delectable street food.
- The showcase event organized at ITPO, is part of the ‘AtmaNirbhar Bharat Utsav’ at Bharat Mandapam, Pragati Maidan
- ‘URBAN SQUARE’ also attempts to communicate the ingredients of what makes an inclusive city.
Fog Pass Device
- To ensure smooth rail operations, Indian Railways have provisioned 19,742 Fog Pass Devices during the foggy weather.
- This initiative marks a crucial step in improving the reliability of train services, reducing delays, and enhancing overall passenger safety.
- Fog Pass Device is a GPS based navigation device that helps the loco pilot to navigate during dense fog conditions.
- It provides on-board real-time information (Display as well as voice guidance) to Loco Pilots regarding location of fixed landmarks such as Signal, Level Crossing gate (Manned & Unmanned), Permanent Speed Restrictions, Neutral Sections etc.
- It displays approach indications of next three approaching fixed landmarks in geographical order accompanied with voice message approximately 500m on approach.
General features of Fog Pass Device:
- Suitable for all types of sections like single line, double line, electrified as well as non electrified sections.
- Suitable for all types of electric and diesel locomotives, EMUs/MEMUs/ DEMUs.
- Suitable for train speeds up to 160 KMPH.
- It has built-in re-chargeable battery back-up for 18 hrs.
- It is portable, compact in size, light in weight (not more than 1.5 Kg including battery) and of robust design.
- Loco Pilot can carry the device easily with him to the locomotive on resuming his duty.
- It can be easily placed on the cab desk of locomotive.
- It is a standalone system.
- It is unaffected by weather conditions like Fog, Rain or Sunshine.
Green Cover Index
- The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) under the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for a period of three years to develop and report a “Green Cover Index” for the extensive network of National Highways in India.
- To enhance in-situ data collection and supplement plantation management and monitoring, including performance audits conducted by NHAI, the NRSC will undertake a comprehensive pan-India estimation of green cover, referred to as the “Green Cover Index” for National Highways using high-resolution satellite imagery.
- This innovative approach promises to be a robust and reliable mechanism, providing a time-saving and cost-effective solution to generate a macro-level estimate of the degree of greenness along National Highways.
- It will also facilitate targeted interventions in regions that are reported to lack adequate green cover.
- The overarching endeavour of the project is to capture the Green Cover Index region-wise for National Highways in the first assessment cycle.
- Subsequent annual cycles will focus on estimating the growth patterns of green cover for National Highways using scientific techniques.
World Braille Day
- This day holds special importance as it marks the birthday of Louis Braille, the visionary inventor of the Braille script, born in France in 1809.
- Recognizing the paramount role of Braille in education, communication, and social inclusion, the United Nations has designated 4 January each year as World Braille Day.
- Braille, a universal code rather than a language, serves as a tool to write and read in various languages, including Sanskrit, Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Spanish, and many others.
Know! about Braille
- Braille is a tactile representation of alphabetic and numerical symbols using six dots to represent each letter and number, and even musical, mathematical and scientific symbols.
- Braille (named after its inventor in 19th century France, Louis Braille) is used by blind and partially sighted people to read the same books and periodicals as those printed in a visual font.
- Braille is essential in the context of education, freedom of expression and opinion, as well as social inclusion, as reflected in article 2 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
7th Grid-India Day
- The 7th Grid-India Day was celebrated on 3rd January 2024, to commemorate seven years of independent functioning of Grid Controller of India Limited as a Central Public Sector Enterprise.
- GRID-INDIA day is observed on 3rd January to commemorate its independent functioning since 3rdJanuary 2017, as a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) under Ministry of Power, after separating from POWERGRID as its subsidiary organization.
- GRID-INDIA is entrusted with the crucial responsibility of ensuring the integrated operation of the electricity grid in a reliable, efficient, and secure manner. Its structure comprises five Regional Load Despatch Centres (RLDCs) and the National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC).
Ballam’- the President’s Bodyguard Lance
- In a significant gesture of cultural and diplomatic exchange, India has recently fortified its ties with Egypt through a unique presentation.
- On January 4, 2024, at a modest ceremony held in the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Secretary to the President of India, Rajesh Verma, presented 50 traditional ‘Ballams’ to the Ambassador of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Wael Mohamed Awad Hamed.
- The act is deeply rooted in Indian military heritage, to represents the building of friendship and mutual respect between the two nations.
- The ‘Ballam’, a nine-foot-nine-inch lance adorned with a striking red and white pennon, represents a significant part of the President’s Bodyguard (PBG) regalia.
- The pennon, symbolizing “blood over surrender,” reflects the ethos and valor of the PBG, which is the oldest regiment in the Indian Army, dating back to 1773.
- These lances are personally handcrafted by the PBG riders, a tradition that imbues each lance with historical significance and a personal touch.
- The ‘Ballam’ is more than a weapon; it is a symbol of heritage and pride, embodying the bravery and dedication of the guards.
- The riders of PBG make Ballam with own hands – as a tradition in the Regiment.
- Department of School Education & Literacy, Ministry of Education, Government of India has launched ‘Prerana: An Experiential Learning program’, aiming to offer a meaningful, unique, and inspiring experience to all participants, thereby empowering them with leadership qualities.
- Prerana is driven by a strong commitment to integrate principles of Indian education system and the philosophy of value-based education which is a corner stone of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
- Prerana is a week-long residential program for selected students of class IX to XII.
- It is an experiential and inspirational learning program for students with the best-in-class technology where heritage meets innovation.
- A batch of 20 selected students (10 boys and 10 girls) will attend the program, every week from various parts of the country
- Upon selection, the 20 participants (10 boys and 10 girls) will be attending the Prerana program and embark on a journey of inspiration, innovation, and self-discovery.
- After the program, the participants will carry the ethos of Prerana into their respective communities, become change makers and spark positive change to inspire others.
ERNET India’s web portal
- Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) launched ERNET India’s newly developed integrated web portal for educational institutes in the country
- The portal will offer domain registration, DNS and value-added services viz. Website as a Service (WaaS) and Learning Management as a Service (LMaaS).
- The users can select from the variety of available templates for schools, colleges, universities as per their requirement and create their own website and Learning Management System.
- The user can publish the website and LMS by customizing the template with single click.
- This web portal has been developed utilizing open-source software and emerging technologies such as AI/ML.
- The ERNET India is a not-for-profit scientific society under MeitY.
- It is the exclusive domain registrar for all the education & research institutes having ‘ac.in’, ‘edu.in’ & ‘res.in’ as domain name.
- In addition, ERNET India is providing web accessibility service, campus Wi-Fi services, smart classrooms and connectivity through Terrestrial and Satellite based systems to the educational & research institutes in the country.
- It is also in the field of establishing data centers.
MoU between India and Guyana on cooperation in the hydrocarbon sector
- The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister, has approved the signing of Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India and the Ministry of Natural Resources, Republic of Guyana on cooperation in the hydrocarbon sector.
Details of the MoU:
- The proposed MoU covers the complete value chain of hydrocarbon sector including sourcing of crude oil from Guyana, participation of Indian companies in Exploration and Production (E&P) sector of Guyana, cooperation in the areas of crude Oil refining, capacity building
- In recent times, Guyana has gained significant salience in the oil & gas sector becoming the world’s newest oil producer. The new discoveries of 11.2 billion barrels of oil equivalent, amounts to 18% of total global Oil & Gas discoveries and 32% of discovered oil.
Indian Railways to achieve Mission Net Zero Carbon Emission by 2030.
- The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister was apprised of signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between India and the United States for International Development/India (USAID/India) for supporting Indian Railways to achieve Mission Net Zero Carbon Emission by 2030.
- The MoU provides a platform for Indian Railways to interact and share the latest developments and knowledge in the railway sector.
- The MoU facilitates utility modernization, advanced energy solutions and systems, regional energy and market integration and private sector participation and engagement, training and seminars/workshops focusing on specific technology areas like Renewable Energy, energy efficiency and other interactions for knowledge sharing.
- The MoU has been signed to support India Railways in achieving Mission Net Zero Carbon Emission (NZCE) by 2030.
- This will help Indian Railways to reduce dependence on imported fuel such as Diesel, Coal etc.
- Technical assistance for the services under this MoU is intended to be provided by USAID under the SAREP initiative.
Know! about United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
- The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
- With a budget of over $27 billion, USAID is one of the largest official aid agencies in the world and accounts for more than half of all U.S. foreign assistance—the highest in the world in absolute dollar terms.
Know! about SAREP
- The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) launched a new, five-year, $49 million initiative, the South Asia Regional Energy Partnership (SAREP), to facilitate collaboration amongst Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka to improve access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy.
PRITHvi VIgyan (PRITHVI)
- The Union Cabinet Chaired by the Prime Minister, has approved the overarching scheme “PRITHvi VIgyan (PRITHVI)” of Ministry of Earth Sciences, for implementation during the period from 2021-26 at an overall cost of Rs. 4,797 crore.
- The scheme encompasses five ongoing sub-schemes namely “Atmosphere & Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS)”, “Ocean Services, Modelling Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)”, “Polar Science and Cryosphere Research (PACER)”, “Seismology and Geosciences (SAGE)” and “Research, Education, Training and Outreach (REACHOUT)”.
The major Objectives of the overarching Prithvi Scheme are:
Augmentation and sustainance of long-term observations of the atmosphere, ocean, geosphere, cryosphere and solid earth to record the vital signs of the Earth System and change
Development of modelling systems for understanding and predicting weather, ocean and climate hazards and understanding the science of climate change
Exploration polar and high seas regions of the Earth towards discovery of new phenomena and resources;
Development of technology for exploration and sustainable harnessing of oceanic resources for societal applications
Translation of knowledge and insights from Earth systems science into services for societal, environmental and economic benefit.
Know! more about PRITHVI
- Earth System Sciences deal with all the five components of the earth system: atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere and their complex interactions.
- The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) holistically addresses all the aspects relating to the Earth System Science.
- The overarching scheme of PRITHVI will holistically address all the five components of earth system to improve the understating of the Earth System Sciences and to provide reliable services for the country.
- Various components of PRITHVI scheme are inter-dependent and are carried out in an integrated manner through combined efforts of the concerned Institutes under MoES.
- The overarching scheme of Prithvi Vigyan will enable development of integrated multi-disciplinary earth science research and innovative programs across different MoES institutes.
- These integrated R&D efforts will help in addressing the grand challenges of weather and climate, ocean, cryosphere, seismological science and services and explore the living and non-living resources for their sustainable harnessing.
MoU between ISRO and Mauritius Research and Innovation Council (MRIC) on the development of a Joint Small Satellite
- The Union Cabinet was apprised of a Memorandum of Understanding signed at Port Louis, Mauritius on November 01, 2023 between Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Mauritius Research and Innovation Council (MRIC) under the aegis of the Ministry of Information Technology, Communication, and Innovation of the Republic of Mauritius, concerning cooperation on the development of a Joint Small Satellite.
- The space cooperation between India and Mauritius is dated way back in late 1980s when ISRO established a ground station in Mauritius for tracking and telemetry support for ISRO’s launch vehicle and satellite missions, under a country-level agreement signed in 1986 for this purpose.
- The current space cooperation is being governed by the country-level agreement signed on 29.7.2009, which superseded the 1986 agreement mentioned above.
- The MoU was signed on November 1, 2023 at Port Louis, Mauritius during the visit of Minister of State (MEA) to Mauritius for the ‘Aapravasi Diwas’ event.
Project Veer Gatha 3.0
- The third edition of Project ‘Veer Gatha’, a joint initiative of Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Education as part of Republic Day celebrations, has witnessed an overwhelming pan India response.
- Approx. 1.37 crore students from around 2.43 lakh schools participated in the initiative, with 100 winners being selected at the national level.
- Launched on July 13, 2023, Project Veer Gatha 3.0 introduced a range of thought-provoking topics for essay and paragraph writing.
- Students were given the option to explore themes such as their chosen role model, particularly focusing on Gallantry Award winners.
- The Government had launched Project ‘Veer Gatha’ as part of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ to celebrate 75th year of Independence.
- The initiative is aimed at disseminating the details of acts of bravery of the Gallantry awardees and the life stories of these bravehearts among the students so as to raise the spirit of patriotism and instil values of civic consciousness amongst them.
Amrit Dharohar Capacity Building Scheme
- Ministry of Tourism (MoT) in collaboration with Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) launched the fourth training programme under the Amrit Dharohar Capacity Building Scheme
- Under this initiative, two training programmes of 15 days each namely Alternative Livelihood program (ALP) and Paryatan Navik Certificate (PNC) will be conducted.
- With the help of the Odisha State Wetlands Authority (OSWA) and Mangrove Forest Division, Rajnagar a total of 60 participants (30 for each course) were identified from the local communities in and around Bhitarkanika to impart trainings and subsequently certifying them as nature-guides.
- This is part of the ongoing effort of enhancing livelihood opportunities for local communities through harnessing the nature-tourism potential of the Ramsar Sites across the country under the Amrit Dharohar Initiative of the MoEF&CC.
- In the first phase of this programme, five priority Ramsar sites were identified namely Sultanpur National Park, Sirpur wetland, Yashwant Sagar, Bhitarkanika National Park, and Chilika Lake.
- The first three training programmes for Sultanpur National Park, Sirpur wetland, and Yashwant Sagar have been successfully completed in December 2023.
Know! about Amrit Dharohar initiative
- Amrit Dharohar initiative, part of the 2023-24 budget announcement, was launched by MoEF&CC during June 2023 to promote unique conservation values of the Ramsar Sites in the country while generating employment opportunities and supporting local livelihoods.
- The scheme Scholarships for Higher Education for Young Achievers Scheme-SHREYAS, has been proposed to implement during the 2021-22 to 2025-26 by placing two ongoing Central Sector schemes for OBC and others namely –
- National Fellowship for OBC
- Dr. Ambedkar Central Sector Scheme of Interest Subsidy on Educational Loans for Overseas Studies for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Economically Backward Classes (EBCs).
- The main objective of the schemes is Educational Empowerment of OBC & EBC students by way of awarding fellowship (financial assistance) in obtaining quality higher education and interest subsidy on educational loan for overseas studies.
The Scheme comprises following two components
Component 1. National Fellowship for OBC students
- The scheme aims at providing financial assistance to the OBC students in obtaining quality higher education leading to degrees such as M.Phil and Ph.D in universities, research institutions and scientific institutions.
- The scheme is designed to provide a total number of 1000 Junior Research Fellowships per year to undertake advanced studies and research leading to M.Phil. /Ph.D. Degrees
- The scheme covers all universities/institutions recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) and are implemented by the UGC itself on the pattern of the scheme of UGC Fellowships being awarded to research students pursuing M.Phil. and Ph.D.
- The scheme is now implemented by the Ministry through the designated Central Nodal Agency; National Backward Classes Finance and Development Corporation (A Govt. of India Undertaking, under the administrative control of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
Component 2: “Dr. Ambedkar Scheme of Interest Subsidy on Educational Loans for Overseas Studies for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Economically Backward Classes (EBCs)”
- This is a Central Sector Scheme to provide interest subsidy to the student belonging to the OBCs and EBCs on the interest payable for the period of moratorium for the Education Loans for overseas studies to pursue approved courses of studies abroad at Masters, M.Phil. and Ph.D. level.
- The scheme is implemented through the Canara Bank (the Nodal bank for the scheme).
- The Scheme is applicable for higher studies abroad. The interest Subsidy shall be linked with the existing Educational Loan Scheme of Indian Banks Association (IBA) and restricted to students enrolled for course at Masters, M.Phil and Ph.D level.
Martian Upper Atmosphere
- Scientists have detected existence of high-frequency plasma waves in the Martian Upper Atmosphere with novel narrowband and broadband features that can help to understand plasma processes in the Martian plasma environment.
- Various plasma waves are often observed in the Earth’s magnetosphere, a magnetic field cavity around the Earth.
- In general, plasma waves are identified as the short-time scale fluctuations in the electric and magnetic field observations.
- These plasma waves play an important role in the energizationand transport of the charged particles in the Earth’s magnetosphere.
- Some of the plasma waves like electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves act as a cleaning agent for the Earth’s radiation belt, which is hazardous to our satellites.
- Knowing this scenario, researchers are curious to understand the existence of various plasma waves in the vicinity of unmagnetized planets like Mars.
- The planet Mars do not have any intrinsic magnetic field therefore the high-speed solar wind coming from the Sun interacts directly with the Mars atmosphere, like an obstacle in the flow.
High-frequency plasma waves in Mars Atmosphere
- The researchers at Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) have examined the existence of high-frequency plasma waves in the Martian plasma environment by making use of the high-resolution electric field data from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) spacecraft of NASA
- These waves could be either electron oscillations that propagate parallel to the background magnetic field (Langmuir waves) or electron oscillations that propagate perpendicular to the background magnetic field (upper-hybrid type waves) in the magnetosheath region of the Mars.
- They observed two distinct wave modes with frequency below and above the electron plasma frequency in the Martian magnetosphere.
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