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24 May 2023 – Current Affairs

Daily Current Capsules

24 May 2023

Prelims Factoids/History

Historic sceptre ‘Sengol’ to be placed in new Parliament building

Hands of Gold: PM Modi to honour 60,000 workers who built new Parliament  building

Know! the significance of Sengol

  • On August 14, 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru received the Sengol from Tamil Nadu in the presence of several leaders and top dignitaries.
  • This symbolised the transfer of power from the Britishers to the people of an ‘Independent India’.
  • In Tamil culture, ‘Sengol’ has had huge importance since the time of the Chola dynasty.
  • The sceptre is likely to be placed near the Lok Sabha Speaker’s chair in the new Parliament building. 
  • It is called Sengol in Tamil, the meaning of this word is full of wealth

Bilateral Relations

Fiji’s Anti – India Coup of 1987

Rabuka apologises for the 1987 coup and seeks forgiveness

What’s the NEWS

  • Fiji’s Prime Minister Sitiveni Rabuka apologised for his role in orchestrating the 1987 coup that overthrew the democratically elected government of then Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the first Indo-Fijian to lead the country.
  • Rabuka, who was then an army lieutenant colonel, entered Fiji’s parliament, arrested Prime Minister Bavadra, and suspended the constitution.
  • The takeover, the first of several military coups in Fiji, was driven by indigenous Fijians’ fear of losing political control over Indo-Fijians, who dominated the country’s economy.
Know! about the coup
The coup took place a little over a month after an alliance of the National Federation Party and Labour Party won elections that led to the formation of a cabinet dominated by ethnic Indians for the first time since Fiji’s independence from Britain in 1970.
A day after his takeover, Lt Col Rabuka announced he was drafting a new constitution that would guarantee Fiji would never again have an Indian-dominated government
He denied discriminating against Indians, and claimed that he was only “looking after the Fijians’ interest”.
On May 19, anti-Indian riots broke out in the country.
At least 50 Indians were reported injured in the violence that was provoked by a rally that Indians took out in support of the ousted Prime Minister.
Rabuka orchestrated a second coup on September 25 1987
He declared Fiji a republic, and proclaimed himself head of the state, replacing the Queen.
Countries around the world condemned these actions and refused to recognise his regime, and India imposed trade sanctions on Fiji.
Under pressure, Rabuka resigned as head of state on December 6, 1987, and Penaia Ganilau became the first President of the Fijian republic.
A new constitution was promulgated in 1990, and elections were held two years later.
Background
The election victory of the Indo-Fijians was only a trigger for Rabuka’s coup.
Since independence, the South Pacific Ocean archipelago had been seeing a widening political divide between ethnic Indians and indigenous Fijians.
Indians were brought to Fiji from 1879 onward as “girmitiyas” or indentured labour transported to work in sugar plantations.
The majority of these Indians stay back after the indenture system ended and, over time, gained prosperity.
The Indian community eventually became the backbone of Fiji’s economic system, and they had, by the 1940s, outnumbered ethnic Fijians in the islands’ population.
Rabuka’s two coups triggered a massive wave of emigration — according to a report published by The Guardian in 2000, around 70,000 Indians fled the country to “escape the oppression”.
Governance

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA)

Digital India on Twitter: "#DigitalIndia | National eVidhan Application  (NeVA), a Mission Mode Project for #DigitalLegislatures to make the  functioning of all Legislative Houses in India paperless, has been  developed on the

What’s the NEWS

  • Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs is set to organize a two-day National Workshop on the National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) on the 24th & 25th of May, 2023
  • The focus of this workshop is to encourage all State/UT Legislatures to move towards the NeVA platform and bring in transparency, accountability and responsiveness in their conduct of House business, through the use of technology. 

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA)

  • It is one of the 44 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) under the “Digital India Programme” of the Government of India which aims to make the functioning of all the State Legislatures paperless by transforming them into ‘Digital House’.
  • Till now, 21 State legislatures have signed a Memorandum of Understanding for implementation of the NeVA and the project has been sanctioned for 17 Legislatures and funds have been released to them for implementation of the project.
  • Among them, 9 Legislatures have already become fully digital and are Live on the NeVA platform.
  • They are conducting all their business end-to-end in a digital & paperless manner.

Environment

Carbon border adjustment mechanism

What is Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)? - Civilsdaily

What’s the NEWS

  • On May 10, co-legislators at the European Commission signed the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM).
  • It has been described as a “landmark tool” tool to put a fair price on the carbon emitted during the production of carbon-intensive goods that are entering the EU and to encourage cleaner industrial production in non-EU countries.
  • It is a carbon tariff on carbon-intensive products, such as cement and some electricity, imported by the European Union.
  • It is a part of the “Fit for 55 in 2030 package“, which is the EU’s plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels in line with the European Climate Law.

Know! about CBAM

  • CBAM will levy a carbon tax on imports of products made from processes which are not Environmentally sustainable or non-Green.
  • Its primary objective is to avert ‘carbon leakage’.
  • It refers to a phenomenon where an EU manufacturer moves carbon-intensive production to countries outside the region with less stringent climate policies.
  • In other words, replace EU-manufactured products with more carbon-intensive imports.
  • From 2026, once the CBAM is fully implemented, importers in the EU would have to buy carbon certificates corresponding to the payable carbon price of the import had the product been produced in the continent, under its carbon pricing rules.
  • The idea here is to avert the possibility of carbon leakage alongside encouraging producers in non-EU countries to green their manufacturing processes.

Impact India’s Export

  • It will have an adverse impact on India’s exports of metals such as Iron, Steel and aluminium products to the EU because these will face extra scrutiny under the mechanism.
  • India’s major exports to the EU, such as iron ore and steel, face a significant threat due to the carbon levies ranging from 19.8% to 52.7%.
  • From 1st January 2026, the EU will start collecting the carbon tax on each consignment of steel, aluminium, cement, fertilizer, hydrogen and electricity.
  • The carbon intensity of Indian products is significantly higher than that of the EU and many other countries because coal dominates the overall energy consumption.
  • The proportion of coal-fired power in India is close to 75%, which is much higher than the EU (15%) and the global average (36%).
  • Therefore, direct and indirect emissions from iron and steel and aluminium are a major concern for India as higher emissions would translate to higher carbon tariffs to be paid to the EU.

Prelims Factoids

Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition (LIMA 23)

What’s the NEWS

  • An Indian delegation, led by Additional Secretary (Defence Production) attended the 16th Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition (LIMA 23), being held at Langkawi, Malaysia between May 22-25, 2023.

Know! about LIMA

  • Established in 1991 and held biennially, LIMA is one of the largest maritime & aerospace exhibitions in the Asia-Pacific.
  • This year’s edition involves over 600 exhibitors from more than 30 countries, including India.

Environment

World Turtle Day

What’s the NEWS

  • Every year on May 23, American Tortoise Rescue (ATR), a non-profit organisation, observes World Turtle Day.

Know! about World Turtle Day

  • World Turtle Day was established in 2000
  • This event is intended to raise awareness about the need to maintain turtles, tortoises, and their increasingly disappearing habitats.
  • These reptiles serve an important part of our planet, surviving in a variety of environments across the world.
  • This year’s World Turtle Day theme is ‘I Love Turtles,’ emphasising the critical need to conserve these species and their future in the face of dwindling habitats.
  • World Turtle Day is a significant day that calls for action that is initiated by the global community.
  • It is a day when humanity unites to pay tribute to the existence of these magnificent creatures and take proper actions to conserve them.

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