03-04 June 2023 – Current Affairs

Daily Current Capsules

03-04 June 2023

Theme – Polity and Governance/Internal Security

Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952

The Commissions Of Inquiry Act, 1952 - A Critical Analysis : B.M. Prasad,  Manish Mohan: Amazon.in: किताबें

What’s the NEWS

  • The Government of India has notified a Commission of Inquiry under the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952, chaired by Justice Ajai Lamba, former Chief Justice of Gauhati High Court to inquire into the incidents of violence in the state of Manipur on 03.05.2023 and thereafter.
  • The Commission shall submit its report to the Central Government as soon as possible but not later than six months from the date of its first sitting.
  • The headquarters of the Commission shall be at Imphal.

Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952

  • Parliament enacted the Commissions of Inquiry Act, of 1952, which authorizes the central and state governments to appoint inquiry commissions to make inquiries in definite matters of public importance.
  • This is central legislation enacted under the constitution, Schedule VII, List I and III
  • Both central and state governments can set up such Commissions of Inquiry
  • States are restricted by subject matters that they are empowered to legislate upon.
  • If the central government set up the commission first, then states cannot set up a parallel commission on the same subject matter without the approval of the Centre.
  • But if a state has appointed a Commission, then the Centre can appoint another on the same subject if it is of the opinion that the scope of the inquiry should be extended to two or more states.

Static Element – Polity

7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution

  • The 7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution deals with the division of powers between the Union government and State governments. It is a part of the 12 Schedules of the Indian Constitution.
  • The division of powers between the Union and State is notified through three kinds of the list mentioned in the seventh schedule:
  1. Union List – List I
  2. State List – List II
  3. Concurrent List – List III

Connect the dots

What happened in Manipur

  • Violence first erupted in the Torbung area in Churachandpur district during the ‘Tribal Solidarity March’ organized by the All Tribal Student Union Manipur (ATSUM) to protest the demand of Meiteis for Scheduled Tribe (ST) status.
  • The march was organized by tribals — including Nagas and Kukis — after the Manipur High Court asked the state government to send a recommendation to the Centre within four weeks on the demand for ST status by the Metei community
  • During the march in Torbung, an armed mob allegedly attacked people of the Meitei community, leading to retaliatory attacks in the valley districts

Know! about Meitei and Kuki communities.

  • Meiteis account for about 53% of Manipur’s population
  • The tribals, Kukis and Nagas, are nearly 40%, 25% Kukis and 15% Nagas.
  • Most of the Meiteis live in the Imphal valley while the tribals live in the hill districts. 
  • The Meiteis are more educated and also better represented in business and politics of the state than Kukis and Nagas. 

Meitei Community

  • Predominant ethnic group of Manipur State.
  • They are also known as the Manipuri people
  • The Meitei ethnic group represents about 53% of Manipur’s population.
  • They speak the Meitei language (officially called Manipuri), one of the 22 official languages of India and the sole official language of Manipur State.
  • The Meiteis primarily settled in the Imphal Valley region in modern-day Manipur, though a sizable population has settled in the other Indian states of Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya, and Mizoram.
  • Meiteis are predominantly Hindus but also follow their ancient animist beliefs and practices. 8% of the Meiteis are Muslims called Meitei Pangals.
  • Yaoshang Festival is celebrated by the Meitei people at the same time as Holi and is known as ‘Manipur’s version of Holi’.
  • The five-day-long celebration begins with the burning of ‘yaoshang’(a small thatch hut/straw hut), which is constructed with bamboo and straws on the first day.
  • The highlight of the festival is the ThabalChongba, a traditional Manipuri folk dance where boys and girls hold hands and sing and dance in a circle.
  • The festival marks the rejuvenation of the spirit of life and commemorates the birthday of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

The Kuki people

  • They are an ethnic group in the Northeastern Indian states of Manipur and Mizoram, as well as Myanmar.
  • Most of the Kukis and Nagas are Christians.
  • The Kuki constitute one of several hill tribes within India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
  • In Northeast India, they are present in all states except Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Some fifty tribes of Kuki people in India are recognized as scheduled tribes, based on the dialect spoken by that particular Kuki community as well as their region of origin.






Theme – Prelims Factoids

Bhaderwah -Lavender capital of India
Lavender changes fortunes of this Bhaderwah farmer : The Tribune India

What’s the NEWS

  • Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh inaugurated the 2 -day Lavender festival at Bhaderwah in the Jammu region.
  • CSIR- Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu has organized the event as part of its One Week One Lab Campaign. 
  • Dr. Jitendra Singh described Bhaderwah as the birthplace of India’s Purple Revolution and the destination of Agri-StartUps.

Know! about Aroma Mission/Purple Revolution

  • The Ministry of Science and Technology initiated the Purple Revolution or Lavender Revolution in 2016.
  • The Purple Revolution or Lavender Revolution, launched by the Ministry of Science & Technology, aims to promote the indigenous aromatic crop-based agro-economy through the ‘aroma mission’ of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
  • It aims to promote the indigenous aromatic crop-based agro-economy by shifting from foreign aromatics to homegrown kinds.
  • First-time producers were offered free lavender seedlings as part of the goal, and those who had previously produced lavender were paid Rs. 5-6 per plant.
  • The Aroma Mission of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research is a prime example of transforming lives using science and technology.
  • The Purple Revolution under this mission is helping to improve the economic condition of farmers of Jammu and Kashmir, giving them more income-earning options.
  • Under the mission, farmers in J&K are now cultivating Lavender in large quantities.
  • Along with helping farmers double their income, the Aroma Mission is also making the Indian aroma industry globally competitive.

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Theme – Prelims Factoids/Location in NEWS


What’s the NEWS

  • As part of the Indian Navy’s long-range deployment, INS Trishul visited Port Anjouan, Comoros from 31 May to 02 June 23.
  • The ship anchored off Anjoun Island on 31 May 23
  • The port call at Anjoun reflects India’s commitment to bolstering bilateral ties and reinforcing maritime security cooperation with regional Navies in India’s neighborhood.


Anjouan is the easternmost island of the Comoros islands

  • It is an autonomous volcanic island in the Comoro Islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, part of the Union of Comoros.
  • Its chief town is Mutsamudu and, as of 2006, its population is around 277,500. The total area of the island is 424 square kilometers (163 square miles).

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Theme – Social Issues/Justice

Entrepreneurship Awareness Programmes

National Commission for Women to organise Entrepreneurship Awareness  Programmes across India | News9live

What’s the NEWS

  • The National Commission for Women (NCW) in collaboration with the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII) announced the launch of 100 Entrepreneurship Awareness Programmes (EAPs) for potential women entrepreneurs across the country at Vikram University in Ujjain.

Entrepreneurship Awareness Programmes (EAPs )

  • The aim of the one-day EAP is to orient participating women to the benefits of adopting entrepreneurship as a career, learn finer skills, and overcome social, economic, and familial barriers to becoming entrepreneurs.
  • The EAPs are aimed at developing entrepreneurial skills among women so that they could gain knowledge, skills, and motivation to build their own businesses. 



Theme – Infrastructure Development

Shanan hydroelectric powerhouse

British-era Shanan hydropower project in bad shape : The Tribune India

What’s the NEWS

  • Himachal Pradesh chief minister Sukhvinder Singh Sukhu, during his recent visit to Delhi, handed over legal documents regarding Shanan Powerhouse at Jogindernagar in Mandi to the Union Power Ministry.

Shanan hydroelectric powerhouse

  • Commissioned in 1932, the Shanan hydroelectric powerhouse was built under a 99-year lease between Joginder Sen, the then king of Mandi state, and British engineer Col BC Batty in 1925.
  • Location – Joginder Nagar in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh.
  • During the reorganization of states in November 1966, the powerhouse was given to Punjab.
  • The 99-year lease will expire on March 2, 2024.
  • The project is in deplorable condition due to a lack of maintenance.
  • It is one of the oldest powerhouses of the country, which used to feed the entire undivided Punjab, Lahore, and Delhi before Independence.
  • It was basically constructed for carrying construction material for the Shanan powerhouse from Jogindernagar to Barot.
  • It is a unique type of trolley based on a pulley system with no engine, steering wheel, or no gears, or brakes.



Theme – Indigenisation of Technology

Kavach Anti-Collision Device

Alpha Defense™ on Twitter: "FACTS : Kavach has been installed on over 1,098  route km and 65 trains moving under the South Central Railway. In 2022-23,  Indian Railways expects to deploy Kavach

What’s the NEWS

  • The train route where the three ill-fated trains collided near Bahanaga railway station in Odisha’s Balasore district did not have the Kavach system installed

What Is Kavach?

  • Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system, Kavach, is an indigenous National Automatic Train Protection System developed by Research Design and Standards Organisation in association with three Indian vendors.
  • Kavach, meaning armor, aids the loco pilot to avoid Signal Passing At Danger (SPAD) and overspeeding.
  • It controls the speed of the train by automatic application of brakes in case the loco pilot fails to apply the brakes.
  • The ATP system also helps a train run safely during inclement weather such as dense fog.
  • It also prevents collision by direct loco-to-loco communication and supports the feature of SOS in case of any mishap to control other trains in the vicinity.
  • The Kavach also facilitates continuous updates of Movement Authority with a display of signal aspects in Driver Machine Interface (DMI) / Loco Pilot operation cum Indication Panel (LPOCIP).

How Does Kavach Work?

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  • Using high-frequency radio communication, the Kavach operates on the principle of continuous update of movement to prevent collisions.
  • It automatically activates the brakes if the driver fails to do so and also applies brakes to prevent collision between two trains installed with the system.
  • Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags are installed on tracks and at station yards for the identification of tracks and locating trains and their direction.
  • When the system is activated, all trains within the vicinity of 5 kilometers are stopped and the train on the adjacent track is let to pass safely.
  • The On-Board Display of Signal Aspect (OBDSA) helps loco pilots to view the signals on days with low visibility due to bad weather, which they usually have to spot by looking out of the window.



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