Free Shipping For Orders Over ₹899

05 June 2023 – Current Affairs

Daily Current Capsules

05 June 2023

Theme – Environment

World Environment Day 2023

Image

What’s the NEWS

  • The World Environment Day, hosted under the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), marks a day to raise awareness and action about the environmental catastrophes of the modern world.

Know! about World Environment Day

  • Held on June 5 each year, World Environment Day has a specific host country and a theme.
  • For 2023, the host is the West African country of Côte d’Ivoire, in partnership with the Netherlands; while the theme is preventing plastic pollution.
  • Under the hashtag #BeatPlasticPollution, the 45th World Environment Day with the same theme was also held under the leadership of India.
  • This theme is an initiative to raise awareness about the production, use, disposal, and effects of plastic.

World Environment Day -History

  • In 1972, a conference held by the United Nations in Stockholm was the first UN conference which had the environment as its major agenda.
  • The conference became a historic global effort to protect and conserve the environment, leading to the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme.
  • Moreover, this event also marked the formal declaration of a universal day for the environment – June 5.
  • The first World Environment Day was celebrated in 1973 with the theme “Only One Earth”.

STATIC Elements – Environment (steps taken by India)

World Environment Day -India Context

  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has started a month-long mass mobilisation push, which will culminate on June 5, 2023 in a massive celebration of World Environment Day, in order to further catalyse pan-Indian activism and understanding about LiFE
  • This year, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India envisages to celebrate the World Environment Day 2023 with a thrust on the Mission LiFE.
  • The concept of LiFE, i.e., Lifestyle for Environment was introduced by the  Prime Minister, at the World Leaders’ Summit in Glasgow at the 2021 UNFCCC COP26, when he gave a clarion call to rekindle a global pursuit to adopt sustainable lifestyle and practices.
  • Mass mobilisation across the country on LiFE is being organized in the run-up to the celebrations.
  • National Museum of Natural History in collaboration with National Zoological Park kick-started the Mass Mobilisation for Mission LiFE on waste reduced (swachhata actions) to bring behavioral changes among the masses

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • It was established as an international environmental treaty to combat “dangerous human interference with the climate system”, in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
  • It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
  • Its original secretariat was in Geneva but relocated to Bonn in 1996.
  • It entered into force on 21 March 1994.
  • The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1997 and ran from 2005 to 2020, was the first implementation of measures under the UNFCCC.
  • The Kyoto Protocol was superseded by the Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016
  • By 2022, the UNFCCC had 198 parties. Its supreme decision-making body, the Conference of the Parties (COP), meets annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change.
  • Because key signatory states are not adhering to their individual commitments, the UNFCCC has been criticized as being unsuccessful in reducing the emission of carbon dioxide since its adoption.

Conference of the Parties (COP26)- India Context

  • The Government of India has articulated and put across the concerns of developing countries at the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Further, India presented the following five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action: 

  1. Reach 500GWNon-fossil energy capacity by 2030.
  2. 50 per cent of its energy requirements from renewable energy by 2030.
  3. Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
  4. Reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels.
  5. Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.

The government of India has taken several actions to combat plastic pollution

  • Indian government took bold measures to tackle plastic pollution head-on.
  • India took a significant step towards addressing plastic pollution by implementing a ban on manufacturing, selling, and using certain single-use plastic items, including plastic carry bags, starting from July 1, 2022.
  • Government of India, adopted a strategy with two pillars: enforcement of the ban on identified single-use plastic items, and implementation of extended producer responsibility on plastic packaging.
  • The Guidelines on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for Plastic Packaging were notified on 16th February 2022, which stipulated mandatory targets on EPR, recycling of plastic packaging waste, reuse of rigid plastic packaging, and use of recycled plastic content
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan (Clean India Mission) launched in 2014 aims to eliminate open defecation and improve waste management across the country, including the proper disposal of plastic waste.
  • The government has introduced the Plastic Waste Management Rules in 2016, which focus on the proper collection, segregation, recycling, and disposal of plastic waste. The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, define carry bags and encourage manufacturers to shift to thicker plastic bags.
  • The government has set up Plastic Parks in various states, which provide infrastructure and facilities for plastic waste management and recycling.
  • Project REPLAN (stands for REducing PLastic in Nature) launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) aims to reduce consumption of plastic bags by providing a more sustainable alternative.

Source

https://www.unep.org/events/un-day/world-environment-day-2023

Theme – Good Governance/Bilateral Relations

National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG)

A group of people posing for a photoDescription automatically generated

What’s the NEWS

  • The 2–week 60th capacity building programme (CBP) for the civil servants of Bangladesh organised by the National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG) in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) concluded on 2nd June, 2023.
  • Following the completion of the first phase of CBP for 1,500 civil servants, NCGG signed an MoU with the Government of Bangladesh to enhance the capacity of additional 1,800 civil servants by 2025.
  • NCGG in partnership with MEA, NCGG has imparted training to civil servants of 15 countries viz. Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania, Tunisia, Seychelles, Gambia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Laos, Vietnam, Nepal Bhutan, Myanmar and Cambodia.

National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG)

  • The National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG) was set up in 2014 by the Government of India as an apex–level autonomous institution under the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
  • The Centre traces its origin to the National Institute of Administrative Research (NIAR), which was set up in 1995 by the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA), the Government of India’s topmost training institute for civil services.
  • NIAR was subsequently rechristened and subsumed into NCGG.
  • NCGG deals with a gamut of governance issues from local, state to national levels, across all sectors.
  • The Centre is mandated to work in the areas of governance, policy reforms, capacity building and training of civil servants and technocrats of India and other developing countries. It also works as a think tank

Source

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1929581#:~:text=The%202–week%2060th%20capacity,on%202nd%20June%2C%202023.

Theme – Internal Security 

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence - Wikipedia

What’s the NEWS

  • The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) Mumbai seized more than 10 kg of gold in 2 separate cases on 3rd and 4th June 2023.

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)

  • The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an Indian intelligence agency.
  • It is India’s apex anti-smuggling intelligence, investigations and operations agency.
  • The Directorate is run by officers from the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) who are posted in its various Zonal Units as well as in Indian embassies abroad as part of the Customs Overseas Intelligence Network.
  • The Agency works to secure India’s national and economic security by preventing the outright smuggling of contraband such as firearms, gold, narcotics, Fake Indian Currency notes, antiques, wildlife and environmental products.
  • Moreover, it also works to prevent the proliferation of black money, trade based money laundering and commercial frauds.

Source –

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1929777

Theme – Places in NEWS

1.Suez Canal

Stranded Suez ship confounds world uneasy about the long haul - ISS Africa

What’s the NEWS

  • Suez Canal traffic resumes after stranded tanker tugged away
  • The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia.
  • The 193.30 km long canal is a popular trade route between Europe and Asia.
  • The canal officially opened on 17 November 1869.
  • It offers vessels a direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea

Source –

https://www.khaleejtimes.com/world/mena/suez-canal-traffic-resumes-after-broken-down-tanker-tugged-away

2.1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown

File photo of protesters

What’s the NEWS

  • The Hong Kong police searched and detained scores of people for “seditious” intent, as authorities tightened security for the 34th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown.

Tiananmen Square crackdown

  • On June 4th, 1989, the Government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) sent tanks into Tiananmen Square to brutally repress peaceful Chinese pro-democracy protesters and bystanders alike.
  • Students in Beijing held protests in 1989 against a Chinese repressive government which at Tiananmen Square led to violence some students were even killed.

Source

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-48445934

3.Côte d’Ivoire and Netherlands

What’s the NEWS

  • World Environment Day is the biggest international day for the environment.
  • Led by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and held annually since 1973, it has grown to be the largest global platform for environmental outreach.
  • World Environment Day 2023 is hosted by Côte d’Ivoire and supported by the Netherlands and the theme will focus on solutions to plastic pollution under the campaign #BeatPlasticPollution.

Côte d’Ivoire and the Netherlands

Cote d'Ivoire | Culture, History, & People | Britannica

Netherlands | History, Flag, Population, Languages, Map, & Facts |  Britannica

Source –

https://www.unep.org/events/un-day/world-environment-day-2023

Theme – International Relations/Space Awareness

North Korean spy satellite- Malligyong-1

North Korea promises another attempt at spy satellite launch | World News -  Hindustan Times

What’s the NEWS

  • On May 31, a North Korean military reconnaissance satellite Malligyong-1 was launched through a new type of rocket named Chollima-1.
  • The satellite is said to have flown for about 10 minutes before crashing into the Yellow Sea.
  • The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reported the failure as the instability in the rocket’s engine and fuel system.
  • The launch, however, prompted evacuation warnings and emergency alerts in parts of South Korea and Japan.
  • The U.S., Japan and South Korea expressed ‘strong condemnation’ to the launch.

N. Korea space programme – intention behind

  • North Korea’s space programme is a response to other strategic developments in the region.
  • Earlier, the U.S. announced that it would be activating U.S. Space Forces Korea. This system would provide South Korea with advanced capabilities of missile warning and satellite communications throughout the Korean peninsula and its proximate areas.
  • On May 25, South Korea successfully launched its Nuri rocket that is designed to assist Seoul’s efforts to develop a space-based surveillance system.
  • These developments nudged Pyongyang to hasten the launch of Malligyong-1.

Source –

https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/explained-why-does-north-korea-want-spy-satellites/article66931814.ece

Theme – International Relations/International Organisations

NATO chief urges Turkey not to veto Sweden’s bid to join military alliance

What’s the NEWS

  • NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg upon Ankara(Turkey) to drop its opposition to Sweden’s bid to join the U.S.-led defence alliance
  • Sweden and Finland dropped decades of military non-alignment and applied to join the alliance, in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • Finland formally joined NATO in April.

Why Turkey is opposing Sweden membership

  • Turkey has accused Sweden of being a haven for “terrorists”, especially members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), a group blacklisted by Turkey and its Western allies.
  • NATO member Turkey has dragged its feet over admitting Sweden to the military alliance. It and Hungary are the only two NATO countries yet to ratify the membership bid.

Know! about North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • It is a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April, 1949, by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.
  • There are currently 31 member states.
  • Its original members were Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Recently, Finland and Sweden have shown interest to join NATO.
  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium.
  • Headquarters of Allied Command Operations: Mons, Belgium.

Objectives of NATO

  • POLITICAL – NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
  • MILITARY – NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO’s founding treaty – Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.
  • NATO is committed to the principle that an attack against one or several of its members is considered as an attack against all.
  • This is the principle of collective defence, which is enshrined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty.
  • So far, Article 5 has been invoked once – in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001.

Functioning of NATO

  • All 31 allies have an equal say, the Alliance’s decisions must be unanimous and consensual, and its members must respect the basic values that underpin the Alliance, namely democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
  • NATO’s protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups.
  • NATO is funded by its members. The U.S. contributes roughly three-fourths of NATO’s budget.

Know! also about Kurdistan Workers’ Party

A map highlighting areas where Kurdish PKK rebels have attacked Turkish  troops. | | The New Humanitarian

  • The Kurdistan Workers’ Party or PKK is a Kurdish militant political organization and armed guerrilla movement which historically operated throughout Kurdistan but is now primarily based in the mountainous Kurdish-majority regions of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq.
  • Since 1984, the PKK has utilized asymmetric warfare in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (with several ceasefires between 1993 and 2013–2015).
  • Although the PKK initially sought an independent Kurdish state, in the 1990s its goals changed to seeking autonomy and increased political and cultural rights for Kurds within Turkey.
  • The PKK is designated as a terrorist organization by Turkey, the United States,[21] the EUand some other countries

Source –

https://www.timesofisrael.com/nato-chief-urges-turkey-not-to-veto-swedens-bid-to-join-military-alliance/

https://www.nato.int/nato-welcome/index.html

KEEP Learning KEEP Evolving

TEAM CL/GKP

Daily Current Capsules

05 June 2023

Theme – Environment

World Environment Day 2023

Image

What’s the NEWS

  • The World Environment Day, hosted under the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), marks a day to raise awareness and action about the environmental catastrophes of the modern world.

Know! about World Environment Day

  • Held on June 5 each year, World Environment Day has a specific host country and a theme.
  • For 2023, the host is the West African country of Côte d’Ivoire, in partnership with the Netherlands; while the theme is preventing plastic pollution.
  • Under the hashtag #BeatPlasticPollution, the 45th World Environment Day with the same theme was also held under the leadership of India.
  • This theme is an initiative to raise awareness about the production, use, disposal, and effects of plastic.

World Environment Day -History

  • In 1972, a conference held by the United Nations in Stockholm was the first UN conference which had the environment as its major agenda.
  • The conference became a historic global effort to protect and conserve the environment, leading to the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme.
  • Moreover, this event also marked the formal declaration of a universal day for the environment – June 5.
  • The first World Environment Day was celebrated in 1973 with the theme “Only One Earth”.

STATIC Elements – Environment (steps taken by India)

World Environment Day -India Context

  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has started a month-long mass mobilisation push, which will culminate on June 5, 2023, in a massive celebration of World Environment Day, in order to further catalyse pan-Indian activism and understanding about life
  • This year, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India envisages celebrating World Environment Day 2023 with a thrust on the Mission LiFE.
  • The concept of LiFE, i.e., Lifestyle for Environment was introduced by the  Prime Minister, at the World Leaders’ Summit in Glasgow at the 2021 UNFCCC COP26, when he gave a clarion call to rekindle a global pursuit to adopt sustainable lifestyle and practices.
  • Mass mobilisation across the country on LiFE is being organized in the run-up to the celebrations.
  • National Museum of Natural History in collaboration with the National Zoological Park kick-started the Mass Mobilisation for Mission LiFE on waste reduction (swachhata actions) to bring behavioural changes among the masses

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • It was established as an international environmental treaty to combat “dangerous human interference with the climate system”, in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
  • It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
  • Its original secretariat was in Geneva but relocated to Bonn in 1996.
  • It entered into force on 21 March 1994.
  • The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1997 and ran from 2005 to 2020, was the first implementation of measures under the UNFCCC.
  • The Kyoto Protocol was superseded by the Paris Agreement, which entered into force in 2016
  • By 2022, the UNFCCC had 198 parties. Its supreme decision-making body, the Conference of the Parties (COP), meets annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change.
  • Because key signatory states are not adhering to their individual commitments, the UNFCCC has been criticized as being unsuccessful in reducing the emission of carbon dioxide since its adoption.

Conference of the Parties (COP26)- India Context

  • The Government of India has articulated and put across the concerns of developing countries at the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Further, India presented the following five nectar elements (Panchamrit) of India’s climate action: 

  1. Reach 500GWNon-fossil energy capacity by 2030.
  2. 50 per cent of its energy requirements from renewable energy by 2030.
  3. Reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes from now to 2030.
  4. Reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy by 45 per cent by 2030, over 2005 levels.
  5. Achieving the target of net zero emissions by 2070.

The government of India has taken several actions to combat plastic pollution

  • The Indian government took bold measures to tackle plastic pollution head-on.
  • India took a significant step towards addressing plastic pollution by implementing a ban on manufacturing, selling, and using certain single-use plastic items, including plastic carry bags, starting from July 1, 2022.
  • The government of India adopted a strategy with two pillars: enforcement of the ban on identified single-use plastic items, and implementation of extended producer responsibility on plastic packaging.
  • The Guidelines on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for Plastic Packaging were notified on 16th February 2022, which stipulated mandatory targets on EPR, recycling of plastic packaging waste, reuse of rigid plastic packaging, and use of recycled plastic content
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan (Clean India Mission) launched in 2014 aims to eliminate open defecation and improve waste management across the country, including the proper disposal of plastic waste.
  • The government introduced the Plastic Waste Management Rules in 2016, which focus on the proper collection, segregation, recycling, and disposal of plastic waste. The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016, define carry bags and encourage manufacturers to shift to thicker plastic bags.
  • The government has set up Plastic Parks in various states, which provide infrastructure and facilities for plastic waste management and recycling.
  • Project REPLAN (stands for REducing PLastic in Nature) launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) aims to reduce the consumption of plastic bags by providing a more sustainable alternative.

Source

https://www.unep.org/events/un-day/world-environment-day-2023

Theme – Good Governance/Bilateral Relations

National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG)

A group of people posing for a photoDescription automatically generated

What’s the NEWS

  • The 2–week 60th capacity building programme (CBP) for the civil servants of Bangladesh organised by the National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG) in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) concluded on 2nd June 2023.
  • Following the completion of the first phase of CBP for 1,500 civil servants, NCGG signed an MoU with the Government of Bangladesh to enhance the capacity of additional 1,800 civil servants by 2025.
  • NCGG in partnership with MEA, NCGG has imparted training to civil servants of 15 countries viz. Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania, Tunisia, Seychelles, Gambia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Laos, Vietnam, Nepal Bhutan, Myanmar and Cambodia.

National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG)

  • The National Centre for Good Governance (NCGG) was set up in 2014 by the Government of India as an apex–level autonomous institution under the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
  • The Centre traces its origin to the National Institute of Administrative Research (NIAR), which was set up in 1995 by the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA), the Government of India’s topmost training institute for civil services.
  • NIAR was subsequently rechristened and subsumed into NCGG.
  • NCGG deals with a gamut of governance issues from local, state to national levels, across all sectors.
  • The Centre is mandated to work in the areas of governance, policy reforms, capacity building and training of civil servants and technocrats of India and other developing countries. It also works as a think tank

Source

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1929581#:~:text=The%202–week%2060th%20capacity,on%202nd%20June%2C%202023.

Theme – Internal Security 

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence - Wikipedia

What’s the NEWS

  • The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) Mumbai seized more than 10 kg of gold in 2 separate cases on 3rd and 4th June 2023.

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)

  • The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an Indian intelligence agency.
  • It is India’s apex anti-smuggling intelligence, investigations and operations agency.
  • The Directorate is run by officers from the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) who are posted in its various Zonal Units as well as in Indian embassies abroad as part of the Customs Overseas Intelligence Network.
  • The Agency works to secure India’s national and economic security by preventing the outright smuggling of contraband such as firearms, gold, narcotics, Fake Indian Currency notes, antiques, wildlife and environmental products.
  • Moreover, it also works to prevent the proliferation of black money, trade-based money laundering and commercial fraud.

Source –

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1929777

Theme – Places in NEWS

1.Suez Canal

Stranded Suez ship confounds world uneasy about the long haul - ISS Africa

What’s the NEWS

  • Suez Canal traffic resumes after stranded tanker tugged away
  • The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia.
  • The 193.30 km long canal is a popular trade route between Europe and Asia.
  • The canal officially opened on 17 November 1869.
  • It offers vessels a direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea

Source –

https://www.khaleejtimes.com/world/mena/suez-canal-traffic-resumes-after-broken-down-tanker-tugged-away

2.1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown

File photo of protesters

What’s the NEWS

  • The Hong Kong police searched and detained scores of people for “seditious” intent, as authorities tightened security for the 34th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown.

Tiananmen Square crackdown

  • On June 4th, 1989, the Government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) sent tanks into Tiananmen Square to brutally repress peaceful Chinese pro-democracy protesters and bystanders alike.
  • Students in Beijing held protests in 1989 against a Chinese repressive government which at Tiananmen Square led to violence some students were even killed.

Source

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-48445934

3.Côte d’Ivoire and Netherlands

What’s the NEWS

  • World Environment Day is the biggest international day for the environment.
  • Led by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and held annually since 1973, it has grown to be the largest global platform for environmental outreach.
  • World Environment Day 2023 is hosted by Côte d’Ivoire and supported by the Netherlands and the theme will focus on solutions to plastic pollution under the campaign #BeatPlasticPollution.

Côte d’Ivoire and the Netherlands

Cote d'Ivoire | Culture, History, & People | Britannica Netherlands | History, Flag, Population, Languages, Map, & Facts |  Britannica

Source –

https://www.unep.org/events/un-day/world-environment-day-2023

Theme – International Relations/Space Awareness

North Korean spy satellite- Malligyong-1

North Korea promises another attempt at spy satellite launch | World News -  Hindustan Times

What’s the NEWS

  • On May 31, a North Korean military reconnaissance satellite Malligyong-1 was launched through a new type of rocket named Chollima-1.
  • The satellite is said to have flown for about 10 minutes before crashing into the Yellow Sea.
  • The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reported the failure as the instability in the rocket’s engine and fuel system.
  • The launch, however, prompted evacuation warnings and emergency alerts in parts of South Korea and Japan.
  • The U.S., Japan and South Korea expressed ‘strong condemnation’ of the launch.

N. Korea space programme – the intention behind

  • North Korea’s space programme is a response to other strategic developments in the region.
  • Earlier, the U.S. announced that it would be activating U.S. Space Forces in Korea. This system would provide South Korea with advanced capabilities of missile warning and satellite communications throughout the Korean peninsula and its proximate areas.
  • On May 25, South Korea successfully launched its Nuri rocket which is designed to assist Seoul’s efforts to develop a space-based surveillance system.
  • These developments nudged Pyongyang to hasten the launch of Malligyong-1.

Source –

https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/explained-why-does-north-korea-want-spy-satellites/article66931814.ece

Theme – International Relations/International Organisations

NATO chief urges Turkey not to veto Sweden’s bid to join military alliance

What’s the NEWS

  • NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg upon Ankara(Turkey) to drop its opposition to Sweden’s bid to join the U.S.-led defence alliance
  • Sweden and Finland dropped decades of military non-alignment and applied to join the alliance, in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
  • Finland formally joined NATO in April.

Why Turkey is opposing Sweden membership

  • Turkey has accused Sweden of being a haven for “terrorists”, especially members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), a group blacklisted by Turkey and its Western allies.
  • NATO member Turkey has dragged its feet over admitting Sweden to the military alliance. It and Hungary are the only two NATO countries yet to ratify the membership bid.

Know! about North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • It is a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April, 1949, by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.
  • There are currently 31 member states.
  • Its original members were Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Recently, Finland and Sweden have shown interest to join NATO.
  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium.
  • Headquarters of Allied Command Operations: Mons, Belgium.

Objectives of NATO

  • POLITICAL – NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
  • MILITARY – NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under the collective defence clause of NATO’s founding treaty – Article 5 of the Washington Treaty or under a United Nations mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organisations.
  • NATO is committed to the principle that an attack against one or several of its members is considered as an attack against all.
  • This is the principle of collective defence, which is enshrined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty.
  • So far, Article 5 has been invoked once – in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001.

Functioning of NATO

  • All 31 allies have an equal say, the Alliance’s decisions must be unanimous and consensual, and its members must respect the basic values that underpin the Alliance, namely democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
  • NATO’s protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups.
  • NATO is funded by its members. The U.S. contributes roughly three-fourths of NATO’s budget.

Know! also about Kurdistan Workers’ Party

A map highlighting areas where Kurdish PKK rebels have attacked Turkish  troops. | | The New Humanitarian

  • The Kurdistan Workers’ Party or PKK is a Kurdish militant political organization and armed guerrilla movement which historically operated throughout Kurdistan but is now primarily based in the mountainous Kurdish-majority regions of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq.
  • Since 1984, the PKK has utilized asymmetric warfare in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (with several ceasefires between 1993 and 2013–2015).
  • Although the PKK initially sought an independent Kurdish state, in the 1990s its goals changed to seeking autonomy and increased political and cultural rights for Kurds within Turkey.
  • The PKK is designated as a terrorist organization by Turkey, the United States,[21] the EU and some other countries

Source –

https://www.timesofisrael.com/nato-chief-urges-turkey-not-to-veto-swedens-bid-to-join-military-alliance/

https://www.nato.int/nato-welcome/index.html

KEEP Learning KEEP Evolving

TEAM CL/GKP

[]