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01-02 & 03 July 2023 – Current Affairs

Daily Current Capsules

01,02 and 03 July 2023

Bharat 6G Alliance – B6GA

DoT launches Bharat 6G Alliance to drive innovation and collaboration in  next-gen wireless technology - MediaBrief
  • The Indian government has launched the Bharat 6G Alliance (B6GA) to spearhead the development of 6G technology in the country.
  • The collaborative platform consisting of public and private companies, academia, research institutions, and standards development organizations aims to achieve universal and affordable connectivity, promote indigenous technology, and establish India as a global leader in the telecom sector.
  • The Bharat 6G Alliance shall be an alliance of domestic industry, academia, national research institutions and standards organisations facilitated by the Government.
  • The B6GA is expected to chart its own course of action based on the Bharat 6G Vision Document and further developments.

B6GA will focus on the following:

  1. To help grow 5G Advanced/6G IPs and essential patents from India;
  2. Design and build Indian 5G Advanced/6G products and solutions;
  3. Support and energise Indian participation in 3GPP/ITU;
  4. To help build consortia of Indian Startups and companies;
  5. To facilitate market access for Indian 5G/6G technology products;
  6. Build coalition with like-minded 6G Global Alliances.

Bharat 6G Mission

  • The Government of India is catalysing the next-generation 6G research and innovation in the country to enable India to be a front-line contributor in 6G technology and manufacturing by 2030.
  • The Department of Telecommunications constituted a Technology Innovation Group on 6G (TIG-6G) on 1st November 2021 with members from various Ministries/Departments, research and development institutions to develop Vision, Mission and Goals for the 6G and also develop a roadmap and action plans for 6G in India.
  • The TIG-6G in turn constituted six Task Forces with industry, academia, R&D institutions and Government as members
  • Based on the reports of the Six Task Forces, a Bharat 6G Vision Document has been prepared by the Technology Innovation Group on 6G.

The Mission will be completed in two phases:

  • Phase 1 from 2023-2025 (2 years)
  • Phase 2 from 2025-2030 (5 years)

Bharat 6G Mission – Objectives

  • Facilitate and finance Research and Development, design and development of 6G technologies by Indian Startups/Companies/Research bodies/Universities;
  • Enable India to become a leading global supplier of IP, products and solutions of affordable 6G telecom solutions;
  • Deploy 6G technologies to act as a powerful force multiplier for India@2030;
  • Enable inclusive and significant enhancement in the quality of living experience of citizens in India and across the world.

Know! about 6G

  • 6G has been conceived as a far superior technology than 5G.
  • 6G is 100 times faster than 5G
  • 5G can offer internet speeds up to 10 gigabits per second on the other hand 6G promises to offer ultra-low latency with speeds up to 1 terabit per second 
  • Its application will include remote-controlled factories, constantly communicating self-driven cars and smart wearables taking inputs directly from human senses.

Sagar Nidhi – Colombo Security Conclave

  • In a landmark event concerning maritime collaboration under the framework of Colombo Security Conclave (CSC) between the nations of Indian Ocean Region, scientists from Bangladesh and Mauritius embarked onboard India’s research vessel ‘Sagar Nidhi’ to participate in the joint ocean expedition spanning nearly 35 days.
  • The cruise is conducted by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) under Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • It is an outcome of the maiden CSC Oceanographers and Hydrographers conference held at Goa and Hyderabad in November 2022.
  • During the expedition, the scientists will collaboratively undertake research on the ocean data to predict and manage changes in the marine environment and variation in ocean parameters.

Colombo Security Conclave (CSC)

  • The CSC, was formed in 2011 as a trilateral maritime security grouping of India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
  • Mauritius joined as a fourth member
  • Bangladesh and Seychelles – observer nations (invited to join the group.)

Objective : Cooperation to enhance and strengthen regional security in the following five pillars:

  • Maritime Safety and Security
  • Countering Terrorism and Radicalization
  • Combating Trafficking and Transnational Organized Crime
  • Cyber Security, Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Technology
  • Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

Oceanographic Research Vessel (ORV) Sagar Nidhi

  • It was commissioned in 2008 for the country’s marine research programme.
  • The vessel is capable of carrying out geo-scientific, meteorological and oceanographic research, and is designed with blue-water capability with ranges of up to 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km) for voyages lasting up to 45 days.
  • The third research vessel after Sagar Purvi and Sagar Paschimi, the Italian-built Sagar Nidhi is equipped to launch submersible capsules capable of taking scientists to a depth of six km below the sea level. 
  • The 104 metres long and 18 metres wide ship would provide a cutting edge reference point for the study of marine theatres of operation, including tropical and polar environments. 
  • The vessel would be used for launching tsunami monitoring systems and remotely operable vehicles, for identifying mines and gas hydrates
  • MoES has, at present 6 ships, SagarNidhi, SagarManjusha, SagarKanya, SagarSampada, Sagar Tara & SagarAnveshika, which are used for many ocean studies and applications including ocean observations.
Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)
It has the mandate of providing weather, climate, Ocean and seismological services and to harness living and non-living resources.
It is also involved in development of relevant Ocean Technology and Ocean Survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and deep oceans for minerals and energy.
National Institute of Technology (NIOT) Chennai has the mandate to develop technologies for the sustainable harvesting of living and non-living resources of the ocean.

International Buddhist Confederation (IBC)

International Buddhist Confederation celebrating Ashadha Purnima in Delhi |
  • The International Buddhist Confederation (IBC), under the aegis of Ministry of Culture, Government of India, will celebrate  Ashadha Purnima on 3 July, 2023 as the Dharma Chakra Pravartana Divas
  • It is the annual flagship event of IBC and the second most sacred day for Buddhists after the Buddha Purnima or the Vaishakha Purnima.
  • It was at Sarnath that Buddha gave his first sermon and set the wheel of dharma in motion.
  • The auspicious day of Ashadha Purnima which falls on the full moon day of the month of Ashadha as per Indian lunar calendar is also known as Esala Poya in Sri Lanka and Asanha Bucha in Thailand.
  • The day marks Buddha’s first teaching after attaining Enlightenment to the first five ascetic disciples   (pañcavargiya) on the full-moon day of Ashadha at ‘Deer Park’, Ṛiṣipatana Mrigadaya in the present day Sarnath, near Varanasi, India.
  • The Rainy Season retreat (Varsha Vassa) for the Monks and Nuns also starts with this day lasting for three lunar months from July to October, during which they remain in a single place, generally in their temples dedicated to intensive meditation.
  • The day is also observed as Guru Purnima by both Buddhists and Hindus as a day to mark reverence to their Gurus.

National Maritime Heritage Complex (NMHC)

Gujarat: Lothal maritime museum project takes first steps | Ahmedabad News  - Times of India
  • A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between Indian Coast Guard & Indian Navy with Indian Port Rail & Ropeway Corporation Ltd on July 2, 2023, in Gandhinagar for the planning, development, construction, and commissioning of a gallery on the theme “Evolution of Indian Navy & Indian Coast Guard” at the National Maritime Heritage Complex (NMHC) which is being constructed at the historic Indus Valley civilization region of Lothal (Gujarat).

Know! about NMHC

  • NMHC is one of the major projects of Sagarmala Programme under MoPSW and will be the world’s biggest Maritime Museum complex’.
  • The Government of India is building the National Maritime Heritage Complex (NMHC) at the historic Indus Valley civilization region of Lothal (Gujarat) under the aegis of the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways.
  • The foundation stone for the NMHC project was laid by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in March 2019.
  • Comprising of a maritime museum, lighthouse museum, maritime theme parks, amusement park centres, etc., NMHC will showcase the maritime heritage of the country from ancient to modern times by adopting an edutainment approach using the latest technology to spread awareness about India’s maritime heritage.

MISSION GAGANYAAN

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  • The first batch of crew recovery team of Mission Gaganyaan completed Phase-1 of training at Indian Navy’s Water Survival Training Facility (WSTF) at Kochi.
  • Utilising the state of the art facility, the team comprising of Indian Naval Divers and Marine Commandos underwent recovery training of crew module in varied sea conditions.

Gaganyaan

  • Under the Gaganyaan schedule, three flights will be sent into orbit.There will be two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • The Gaganyaan system module, called the Orbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
  • Gaganyaan project envisages demonstration of human spaceflight capability by launching crew of 3 members to an orbit of 400 km for a 3 days mission and bring them back safely to earth, by landing in Indian sea waters.
  • The pre-requisites for Gaganyaan mission include development of many critical technologies including human rated launch vehicle for carrying crew safely to space, Life Support System to provide an earth like environment to crew in space, crew emergency escape provision and evolving crew management aspects for training, recovery and rehabilitation of crew.
  • Various precursor missions are planned for demonstrating the Technology Preparedness Levels before carrying out the actual Human Space Flight mission.
  • These demonstrator missions include Integrated Air Drop Test (IADT), Pad Abort Test (PAT) and Test Vehicle (TV) flights.

Human rated LVM3 – HLVM3

  • GSLV Mk III, also called the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3,) the three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability.
  • LVM3 rocket – The well proven and reliable heavy lift launcher of ISRO, is identified as the launch vehicle for Gaganyaan mission. It consists of solid stage, liquid stage and cryogenic stage.
  • All systems in LVM3 launch vehicle are re-configured to meet human rating requirements and christened Human Rated LVM3.
  • HLVM3 will be capable of launching the Orbital Module to an intended Low Earth Orbit of 400 km.
  • HLVM3 consists of Crew Escape System (CES) powered by a set of quick acting, high burn rate solid motors which ensures that Crew Module along with crew is taken to a safe distance in case of any emergency either at launch pad or during ascent phase.

Payloads

  • The spacecraft consists of a service module and a crew module, collectively known as the Orbital Module. 

Orbital Module (OM)

  • It will be Orbiting Earth comprises of Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM).
  • OM is equipped with state-of-the-art avionics systems with adequate redundancy considering human safety.
  • CM is the habitable space with Earth like environment in space for the crew.
  • It is of double walled construction consisting of pressurized metallic Inner Structure and unpressurised External Structure with Thermal Protection System (TPS).
  • It houses the crew interfaces, human centric products, life support system, avionics and deceleration systems.
  • It is also designed for re-entry to ensure safety of the crew during descent till touchdown.
  • SM will be used for providing necessary support to CM while in orbit.
  • It is an unpressurized structure containing thermal system, propulsion system, power systems, avionics systems and deployment mechanisms.

Akshar River Cruise

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  • Union Home Minister launched -Made in India ‘Akshar River Cruise’ on Sabarmati Riverfront developed by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Limited
  • This cruise is developed under Public Private Partnership by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Limited.
  • This cruise is the first passenger catamaran built in India under Make in India at a cost of ₹15 crore with twin engines and it can safely travel for one and a half hours.

National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

Press Information Bureau

  • The Prime Minister, launched the National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission in Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh and distributed sickle cell genetic status cards to the beneficiaries.
  • The Prime Minister also kickstarted the distribution of about 3.57 crore Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) cards in Madhya Pradesh.
  • During the programme, the Prime Minister honoured Rani Durgavati the ruling queen of Gondwana in the mid-16th century.

National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

  • The Mission aims to address the pressing health challenges posed by sickle cell disease, particularly among the tribal population.
  • The launch will mark a crucial milestone in the Government’s ongoing efforts to eliminate sickle cell disease as a public health problem by 2047.
  • The National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission was announced in the Union Budget 2023. 
  • This will be implemented in 278 districts of 17 high-focus states in the country namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar, and Uttarakhand.
  • The program shall be carried out in a mission mode covering the entire population from zero to 18 years of age and shall incrementally include the entire population up to 40 years as a part of National Health Mission
  • While in its initial stage, the mission would prioritize its intervention in high prevalence and tribal states/UT, the plan would subsequently expand to include all states/UTs in a phase-wise manner with an incremental approach.
  • The mission aims to cover 7 crore people with screening, counselling for prevention and care for people with SCD in three and half years.

Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA)

  • Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder that affects the shape and function of red blood cells (RBCs), which carry oxygen to all parts of the body.
  • Normally, RBCs are round and flexible, but in SCA, some of them are shaped like sickles or crescent moons.
  • These sickle cells are rigid, sticky and prone to getting trapped in small blood vessels, blocking blood flow and causing pain, tissue damage and organ failure.
  • SCA is one of the most common inherited blood disorders in the world, affecting millions of people, especially those of African, Asian and Mediterranean descent.
  • People with sickle cell trait (SCT), usually do not have any symptoms, but they can pass on the gene to their children. If both parents have SCT, there is a 25% chance that their child will have SCA.
  • SCA is a lifelong condition that has no cure for most people. However, it can be managed with proper diagnosis, treatment and care.

Rani Durgavati

  • Rani Durgavati (5 October 1524 – 24 June 1564) was the ruling Queen of Gondwana from 1550 until 1564.
  • She was married to Dalpat Shah, the son of king Sangram Shah of the Garha Kingdom.
  • She is remembered as a brave, fearless and courageous warrior who fought for freedom against the Mughals.

Aspartame

  • Aspartame, one of the world’s common artificial sweeteners is likely to be declared a possible carcinogen
  • BY – WHO’s cancer arm, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

Artificial sweeteners

  • Saccharin, sucralose and neotame are among five other artificial sweeteners alongside aspartame authorized by a WHO expert committee on food additives.

Aspartame

  • A popular artificial sweetener found in Diet Coke, chewing gum, yoghurt and other food products.
  • Discovered in 1965 by American chemist James Schlatter
  • Aspartame is about 200 times sweeter than the regular table sugar.
  • It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1974 for use as a tabletop sweetener and as an additive in chewing gum, breakfast cereals and dry bases for foods.
  • Aspartame has an almost zero calorific value and no bitter aftertaste like saccharin

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Seven products from Uttar Pradesh get Geographical Indication tag

  • The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai has given tags to seven different products from Uttar Pradesh. ‘Amroha Dholak’, ‘Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip’, ‘Mainpuri Tarkashi’, ‘Sambhal Horn Craft’, ‘Baghpat Home Furnishings’, ‘Barabanki Handloom Product’ and ‘Kalpi Handmade Paper’ are the products that been given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. 

Amroha Dholak

  • Amroha Dholak is a musical instrument crafted from natural wood.
  • Preferred wood choices include mango, jackfruit, and teakwood.
  • Baghpat Home Furnishings:

Baghpat Home Furnishings

  • Baghpat and Meerut are famous for their exclusive handloom home furnishing product and running fabrics in cotton yarn since generations, and only cotton yarn are used in the handloom weaving process.
  • Baghpat is famous for weaving on the frame loom instead of the pit loom since generations

Barabanki Handloom Product

  • Barabanki and its surrounding areas are home to around 50,000 weavers and 20,000 looms.

Kalpi Handmade Paper

  • Kalpi has historically been a centre of handmade paper manufacturing. Munnalal ‘Khaddari’, a Gandhian, formally introduced the craft here in the 1940s, though many locals say that Kalpi’s association with paper-making dates further back into history.
  • The handmade paper-making cluster at Kalpi is a huge cluster, engaging more than 5,000 craftsmen and approximately 200 units. 
  • Kalpi is recognized for handmade paper manufacturing.

Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip

  • The Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip is a stone craft.
  • It is a very unique and soft stone with scientific name, the ‘Pyro Flight Stone’.
  • Gaura stone craft is made of radiant white-coloured stone that is predominantly found in this region.
  • It is cut into several pieces, which are then used for making various craft items.

Mainpuri Tarkashi

  • Tarkashi, a popular art form from Mainpuri in Uttar Pradesh, is primarily brass wire inlay work on wood.
  • It was mainly used for khadaous (wooden sandals), a necessity for every household, since leather was considered unclean.

Sambhal Horn Craft

  • It utilises raw materials procured from deceased animals and this craft form is entirely handmade.

GI Tag

  • A geographical indication (GI) tag is a name or sign used on certain products that correspond to a specific geographical location or origin.
  • For example, Darjeeling Tea, Kanchipuram Silk, etc.
  • The GI tag ensures that only the authorised users or those residing in the geographical territory are allowed to use the popular product name.
  • It also protects the product from being copied or imitated by others.
  • A registered GI is valid for 10 years.
  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 seeks to provide for the registration and better protection of geographical indications relating to goods in India.
  • It is governed and directed by the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

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Daily Current Capsules

Bharat 6G Alliance – B6GA

DoT launches Bharat 6G Alliance to drive innovation and collaboration in  next-gen wireless technology - MediaBrief

  • The Indian government has launched the Bharat 6G Alliance (B6GA) to spearhead the development of 6G technology in the country.
  • The collaborative platform consisting of public and private companies, academia, research institutions, and standards development organizations aims to achieve universal and affordable connectivity, promote indigenous technology, and establish India as a global leader in the telecom sector.
  • The Bharat 6G Alliance shall be an alliance of domestic industry, academia, national research institutions and standards organisations facilitated by the Government.
  • The B6GA is expected to chart its own course of action based on the Bharat 6G Vision Document and further developments.

 

B6GA will focus on the following:

  1. To help grow 5G Advanced/6G IPs and essential patents from India;
  2. Design and build Indian 5G Advanced/6G products and solutions;
  3. Support and energise Indian participation in 3GPP/ITU;
  4. To help build consortia of Indian Startups and companies;
  5. To facilitate market access for Indian 5G/6G technology products;
  6. Build coalition with like-minded 6G Global Alliances.

Bharat 6G Mission

  • The Government of India is catalysing the next-generation 6G research and innovation in the country to enable India to be a front-line contributor in 6G technology and manufacturing by 2030.
  • The Department of Telecommunications constituted a Technology Innovation Group on 6G (TIG-6G) on 1st November 2021 with members from various Ministries/Departments, research and development institutions to develop Vision, Mission and Goals for the 6G and also develop a roadmap and action plans for 6G in India.
  • The TIG-6G in turn constituted six Task Forces with industry, academia, R&D institutions and Government as members
  • Based on the reports of the Six Task Forces, a Bharat 6G Vision Document has been prepared by the Technology Innovation Group on 6G.

The Mission will be completed in two phases:

  • Phase 1 from 2023-2025 (2 years)
  • Phase 2 from 2025-2030 (5 years)

Bharat 6G Mission – Objectives

    • Facilitate and finance Research and Development, design and development of 6G technologies by Indian Startups/Companies/Research bodies/Universities;
    • Enable India to become a leading global supplier of IP, products and solutions of affordable 6G telecom solutions;
    • Deploy 6G technologies to act as a powerful force multiplier for India@2030;
    • Enable inclusive and significant enhancement in the quality of living experience of citizens in India and across the world.

Know! about 6G

  • 6G has been conceived as a far superior technology than 5G.
  • 6G is 100 times faster than 5G
  • 5G can offer internet speeds up to 10 gigabits per second on the other hand 6G promises to offer ultra-low latency with speeds up to 1 terabit per second 
  • Its application will include remote-controlled factories, constantly communicating self-driven cars and smart wearables taking inputs directly from human senses.

Sagar Nidhi – Colombo Security Conclave

  • In a landmark event concerning maritime collaboration under the framework of Colombo Security Conclave (CSC) between the nations of Indian Ocean Region, scientists from Bangladesh and Mauritius embarked onboard India’s research vessel ‘Sagar Nidhi’ to participate in the joint ocean expedition spanning nearly 35 days.
  • The cruise is conducted by Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) under Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • It is an outcome of the maiden CSC Oceanographers and Hydrographers conference held at Goa and Hyderabad in November 2022.
  • During the expedition, the scientists will collaboratively undertake research on the ocean data to predict and manage changes in the marine environment and variation in ocean parameters.

Colombo Security Conclave (CSC)

  • The CSC, was formed in 2011 as a trilateral maritime security grouping of India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
  • Mauritius joined as a fourth member
  • Bangladesh and Seychelles – observer nations (invited to join the group.)

Objective : Cooperation to enhance and strengthen regional security in the following five pillars:

  • Maritime Safety and Security
  • Countering Terrorism and Radicalization
  • Combating Trafficking and Transnational Organized Crime
  • Cyber Security, Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Technology
  • Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

Oceanographic Research Vessel (ORV) Sagar Nidhi

  • It was commissioned in 2008 for the country’s marine research programme.
  • The vessel is capable of carrying out geo-scientific, meteorological and oceanographic research, and is designed with blue-water capability with ranges of up to 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km) for voyages lasting up to 45 days.
  • The third research vessel after Sagar Purvi and Sagar Paschimi, the Italian-built Sagar Nidhi is equipped to launch submersible capsules capable of taking scientists to a depth of six km below the sea level. 
  • The 104 metres long and 18 metres wide ship would provide a cutting edge reference point for the study of marine theatres of operation, including tropical and polar environments. 
  • The vessel would be used for launching tsunami monitoring systems and remotely operable vehicles, for identifying mines and gas hydrates
  • MoES has, at present 6 ships, SagarNidhi, SagarManjusha, SagarKanya, SagarSampada, Sagar Tara & SagarAnveshika, which are used for many ocean studies and applications including ocean observations.

Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES)

It has the mandate of providing weather, climate, Ocean and seismological services and to harness living and non-living resources.

It is also involved in development of relevant Ocean Technology and Ocean Survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and deep oceans for minerals and energy.

National Institute of Technology (NIOT) Chennai has the mandate to develop technologies for the sustainable harvesting of living and non-living resources of the ocean.

International Buddhist Confederation (IBC)

International Buddhist Confederation celebrating Ashadha Purnima in Delhi |

  • The International Buddhist Confederation (IBC), under the aegis of Ministry of Culture, Government of India, will celebrate  Ashadha Purnima on 3 July, 2023 as the Dharma Chakra Pravartana Divas
  • It is the annual flagship event of IBC and the second most sacred day for Buddhists after the Buddha Purnima or the Vaishakha Purnima.
  • It was at Sarnath that Buddha gave his first sermon and set the wheel of dharma in motion.
  • The auspicious day of Ashadha Purnima which falls on the full moon day of the month of Ashadha as per Indian lunar calendar is also known as Esala Poya in Sri Lanka and Asanha Bucha in Thailand.
  • The day marks Buddha’s first teaching after attaining Enlightenment to the first five ascetic disciples   (pañcavargiya) on the full-moon day of Ashadha at ‘Deer Park’, Ṛiṣipatana Mrigadaya in the present day Sarnath, near Varanasi, India.
  • The Rainy Season retreat (Varsha Vassa) for the Monks and Nuns also starts with this day lasting for three lunar months from July to October, during which they remain in a single place, generally in their temples dedicated to intensive meditation.
  • The day is also observed as Guru Purnima by both Buddhists and Hindus as a day to mark reverence to their Gurus.

 

National Maritime Heritage Complex (NMHC)

Gujarat: Lothal maritime museum project takes first steps | Ahmedabad News  - Times of India

  • A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between Indian Coast Guard & Indian Navy with Indian Port Rail & Ropeway Corporation Ltd on July 2, 2023, in Gandhinagar for the planning, development, construction, and commissioning of a gallery on the theme “Evolution of Indian Navy & Indian Coast Guard” at the National Maritime Heritage Complex (NMHC) which is being constructed at the historic Indus Valley civilization region of Lothal (Gujarat).

Know! about NMHC

  • NMHC is one of the major projects of Sagarmala Programme under MoPSW and will be the world’s biggest Maritime Museum complex’.
  • The Government of India is building the National Maritime Heritage Complex (NMHC) at the historic Indus Valley civilization region of Lothal (Gujarat) under the aegis of the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways.
  • The foundation stone for the NMHC project was laid by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in March 2019.
  • Comprising of a maritime museum, lighthouse museum, maritime theme parks, amusement park centres, etc., NMHC will showcase the maritime heritage of the country from ancient to modern times by adopting an edutainment approach using the latest technology to spread awareness about India’s maritime heritage.

MISSION GAGANYAAN

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  • The first batch of crew recovery team of Mission Gaganyaan completed Phase-1 of training at Indian Navy’s Water Survival Training Facility (WSTF) at Kochi.
  • Utilising the state of the art facility, the team comprising of Indian Naval Divers and Marine Commandos underwent recovery training of crew module in varied sea conditions.

Gaganyaan

  • Under the Gaganyaan schedule, three flights will be sent into orbit.There will be two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • The Gaganyaan system module, called the Orbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman.
  • Gaganyaan project envisages demonstration of human spaceflight capability by launching crew of 3 members to an orbit of 400 km for a 3 days mission and bring them back safely to earth, by landing in Indian sea waters.
  • The pre-requisites for Gaganyaan mission include development of many critical technologies including human rated launch vehicle for carrying crew safely to space, Life Support System to provide an earth like environment to crew in space, crew emergency escape provision and evolving crew management aspects for training, recovery and rehabilitation of crew.
  • Various precursor missions are planned for demonstrating the Technology Preparedness Levels before carrying out the actual Human Space Flight mission.
  • These demonstrator missions include Integrated Air Drop Test (IADT), Pad Abort Test (PAT) and Test Vehicle (TV) flights.

Human rated LVM3 – HLVM3

  • GSLV Mk III, also called the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3,) the three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability.
  • LVM3 rocket – The well proven and reliable heavy lift launcher of ISRO, is identified as the launch vehicle for Gaganyaan mission. It consists of solid stage, liquid stage and cryogenic stage.
  • All systems in LVM3 launch vehicle are re-configured to meet human rating requirements and christened Human Rated LVM3.
  • HLVM3 will be capable of launching the Orbital Module to an intended Low Earth Orbit of 400 km.
  • HLVM3 consists of Crew Escape System (CES) powered by a set of quick acting, high burn rate solid motors which ensures that Crew Module along with crew is taken to a safe distance in case of any emergency either at launch pad or during ascent phase.

Payloads

  • The spacecraft consists of a service module and a crew module, collectively known as the Orbital Module. 

Orbital Module (OM)

  • It will be Orbiting Earth comprises of Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM).
  • OM is equipped with state-of-the-art avionics systems with adequate redundancy considering human safety.

  • CM is the habitable space with Earth like environment in space for the crew.
  • It is of double walled construction consisting of pressurized metallic Inner Structure and unpressurised External Structure with Thermal Protection System (TPS).
  • It houses the crew interfaces, human centric products, life support system, avionics and deceleration systems.
  • It is also designed for re-entry to ensure safety of the crew during descent till touchdown.
  • SM will be used for providing necessary support to CM while in orbit.
  • It is an unpressurized structure containing thermal system, propulsion system, power systems, avionics systems and deployment mechanisms.

Akshar River Cruise

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  • Union Home Minister launched -Made in India ‘Akshar River Cruise’ on Sabarmati Riverfront developed by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Limited
  • This cruise is developed under Public Private Partnership by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Limited.
  • This cruise is the first passenger catamaran built in India under Make in India at a cost of ₹15 crore with twin engines and it can safely travel for one and a half hours.

National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

Press Information Bureau

  • The Prime Minister, launched the National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission in Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh and distributed sickle cell genetic status cards to the beneficiaries.
  • The Prime Minister also kickstarted the distribution of about 3.57 crore Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) cards in Madhya Pradesh.
  • During the programme, the Prime Minister honoured Rani Durgavati the ruling queen of Gondwana in the mid-16th century.

National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission

  • The Mission aims to address the pressing health challenges posed by sickle cell disease, particularly among the tribal population.
  • The launch will mark a crucial milestone in the Government’s ongoing efforts to eliminate sickle cell disease as a public health problem by 2047.
  • The National Sickle Cell Anaemia Elimination Mission was announced in the Union Budget 2023. 
  • This will be implemented in 278 districts of 17 high-focus states in the country namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar, and Uttarakhand.
  • The program shall be carried out in a mission mode covering the entire population from zero to 18 years of age and shall incrementally include the entire population up to 40 years as a part of National Health Mission
  • While in its initial stage, the mission would prioritize its intervention in high prevalence and tribal states/UT, the plan would subsequently expand to include all states/UTs in a phase-wise manner with an incremental approach.
  • The mission aims to cover 7 crore people with screening, counselling for prevention and care for people with SCD in three and half years.

Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA)

  • Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder that affects the shape and function of red blood cells (RBCs), which carry oxygen to all parts of the body.
  • Normally, RBCs are round and flexible, but in SCA, some of them are shaped like sickles or crescent moons.
  • These sickle cells are rigid, sticky and prone to getting trapped in small blood vessels, blocking blood flow and causing pain, tissue damage and organ failure.
  • SCA is one of the most common inherited blood disorders in the world, affecting millions of people, especially those of African, Asian and Mediterranean descent.
  • People with sickle cell trait (SCT), usually do not have any symptoms, but they can pass on the gene to their children. If both parents have SCT, there is a 25% chance that their child will have SCA.
  • SCA is a lifelong condition that has no cure for most people. However, it can be managed with proper diagnosis, treatment and care.

Rani Durgavati

  • Rani Durgavati (5 October 1524 – 24 June 1564) was the ruling Queen of Gondwana from 1550 until 1564.
  • She was married to Dalpat Shah, the son of king Sangram Shah of the Garha Kingdom.
  • She is remembered as a brave, fearless and courageous warrior who fought for freedom against the Mughals.

Aspartame

  • Aspartame, one of the world’s common artificial sweeteners is likely to be declared a possible carcinogen
  • BY – WHO’s cancer arm, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

Artificial sweeteners

  • Saccharin, sucralose and neotame are among five other artificial sweeteners alongside aspartame authorized by a WHO expert committee on food additives.

Aspartame

  • A popular artificial sweetener found in Diet Coke, chewing gum, yoghurt and other food products.
  • Discovered in 1965 by American chemist James Schlatter
  • Aspartame is about 200 times sweeter than the regular table sugar.
  • It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1974 for use as a tabletop sweetener and as an additive in chewing gum, breakfast cereals and dry bases for foods.
  • Aspartame has an almost zero calorific value and no bitter aftertaste like saccharin

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Seven products from Uttar Pradesh get Geographical Indication tag

  • The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai has given tags to seven different products from Uttar Pradesh. ‘Amroha Dholak’, ‘Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip’, ‘Mainpuri Tarkashi’, ‘Sambhal Horn Craft’, ‘Baghpat Home Furnishings’, ‘Barabanki Handloom Product’ and ‘Kalpi Handmade Paper’ are the products that been given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. 

Amroha Dholak

  • Amroha Dholak is a musical instrument crafted from natural wood.
  • Preferred wood choices include mango, jackfruit, and teakwood.
  • Baghpat Home Furnishings:

Baghpat Home Furnishings

  • Baghpat and Meerut are famous for their exclusive handloom home furnishing product and running fabrics in cotton yarn since generations, and only cotton yarn are used in the handloom weaving process.
  • Baghpat is famous for weaving on the frame loom instead of the pit loom since generations

Barabanki Handloom Product

  • Barabanki and its surrounding areas are home to around 50,000 weavers and 20,000 looms.

Kalpi Handmade Paper

  • Kalpi has historically been a centre of handmade paper manufacturing. Munnalal ‘Khaddari’, a Gandhian, formally introduced the craft here in the 1940s, though many locals say that Kalpi’s association with paper-making dates further back into history.
  • The handmade paper-making cluster at Kalpi is a huge cluster, engaging more than 5,000 craftsmen and approximately 200 units. 
  • Kalpi is recognized for handmade paper manufacturing.

Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip

  • The Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip is a stone craft.
  • It is a very unique and soft stone with scientific name, the ‘Pyro Flight Stone’.
  • Gaura stone craft is made of radiant white-coloured stone that is predominantly found in this region.
  • It is cut into several pieces, which are then used for making various craft items.

Mainpuri Tarkashi

  • Tarkashi, a popular art form from Mainpuri in Uttar Pradesh, is primarily brass wire inlay work on wood.
  • It was mainly used for khadaous (wooden sandals), a necessity for every household, since leather was considered unclean.

Sambhal Horn Craft

  • It utilises raw materials procured from deceased animals and this craft form is entirely handmade.

GI Tag

  • A geographical indication (GI) tag is a name or sign used on certain products that correspond to a specific geographical location or origin.
  • For example, Darjeeling Tea, Kanchipuram Silk, etc.
  • The GI tag ensures that only the authorised users or those residing in the geographical territory are allowed to use the popular product name.
  • It also protects the product from being copied or imitated by others.
  • A registered GI is valid for 10 years.
  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 seeks to provide for the registration and better protection of geographical indications relating to goods in India.
  • It is governed and directed by the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

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